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3 – Accounting policies, judgements and estimates

1) Significant judgments and estimates

Preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the amounts reported for assets, liabilities, income, and expenses, as well as the amounts disclosed in the notes. These estimates and assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are deemed reasonable at the date of preparation of these financial statements. Actual outcomes could differ from these estimates.

Significant estimates and assumptions were required in particular with regards to the effects of the climate crisis and energy transition. These estimates and assumptions are described below in Note 2 – Effects of climate change and the energy transition.

In addition, estimates and assumptions with significant impact on the OMV Group result were made with respect to oil and gas reserves, the recoverability of assets, provisions, lease contracts, and taxes on income. These are described together with the relevant accounting policies in section 2 of this note and highlighted in gray.

2) Significant accounting policies

a) Business combinations and goodwill

Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method. Assets and liabilities of subsidiaries acquired are included at their fair value at the time of acquisition. The non-controlling interests are measured at the proportionate share of the acquiree’s identifiable .

Goodwill is calculated as the excess of the aggregate of the consideration transferred, the amount recognized for non-controlling interest in the acquiree, and the fair value of the equity previously held by OMV in the acquired entity over the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. Goodwill is recorded as an asset and tested for impairment at least yearly. Impairments are recorded immediately through profit or loss; subsequent write-ups are not possible. Any gain on a bargain purchase is recognized in profit or loss immediately.

b) Sales revenue

Revenue is generally recognized when control over a product or a service is transferred to a customer. It is measured based on the consideration specified in a contract with a customer and excludes amounts collected on behalf of third parties.

When goods such as crude oil, , oil and chemical products and similar goods are sold, the delivery of each quantity unit normally represents a single performance obligation. Revenue is recognized when control of the goods has transferred to the customer, which is the point in time when legal ownership and the risk of loss have passed to the customer, and is determined on the basis of the Incoterm agreed in the contract with the customer. These sales are conducted with normal credit terms according to the industry standard.

Revenue from the production of crude oil, in which OMV has an interest with other producers, is recognized according to the sales method. This means that revenue is recognized based on the actual sales to third parties, regardless of the Group’s percentage interest or entitlement. An adjustment of production costs is recognized at average cost for the difference between the costs associated with the output sold and the costs incurred based on entitlement to output, with a counter entry in the other assets or liabilities.

In the retail business, revenues from the sale of fuels are recognized when products are supplied to customers. Depending on whether OMV is principal or agent in the sale of shop merchandise, revenue and costs related to such sales are presented gross or net in the income statement. OMV is principal if it controls the goods before they are transferred to the customer, which is mainly indicated by OMV having the inventory risk. At filling stations, payments are due immediately at the time of purchase or, in the case of payments using fuel cards, in the month following the purchase.

OMV’s gas and power supply contracts include a single performance obligation that is satisfied over the agreed delivery period. Revenue is recognized according to the consumption by the customer and in line with the amount OMV has a right to invoice.

In some customer contracts for the delivery of natural gas, the fees charged to the customer comprise a fixed charge plus a variable fee depending on the volumes delivered. These contracts contain only one performance obligation which is to stand-ready for the delivery of gas over a certain period. The revenue from the fixed charges and the variable fees is recognized in line with the amount chargeable to the customer. Gas and power deliveries are billed and paid on a monthly basis.

Gas storage contracts contain a stand-ready obligation to provide storage services over an agreed period of time. Revenue is recognized according to the amount OMV has a right to invoice. These services are billed and paid on a monthly basis.

There are some customer contracts at OMV for the delivery of oil and gas and for the provision of gas storage services that have a term of more than one year. In principle, IFRS 15 requires the disclosure of the total amount of transaction prices allocated to unperformed performance obligations for such contracts. Contracts for the delivery of oil contain variable prices based on market prices on the delivery date, as is common in the oil industry. For these contracts it therefore is not possible to allocate the transaction price to unsatisfied performance obligations. For gas delivery and gas storage contracts OMV applies the practical expedient according to IFRS 15.121 (b), based on which this information need not be disclosed for contracts where revenue is recognized in the amount the entity has a right to invoice. OMV, therefore, does not disclose this information.

c) Revenues from other sources

Revenues from other sources include revenues from commodity contracts that are within the scope of IFRS 9. Sales and purchases of commodities are reported net, when the forward sales and purchase contracts are determined to be for trading purposes and not for the final physical delivery.

In addition, revenues from other sources include an adjustment of revenues because the national oil company’s profit share is considered as income tax in certain production sharing agreements in the business (see Note 3.2f), and realized and unrealized results from the hedging of sales transactions.

d) Exploration expenses

Exploration expenses relate exclusively to the E&P business in the Energy segment and comprise the costs associated with unproved reserves. These include geological and geophysical costs for the identification and investigation of areas with possible oil and gas reserves and administrative, legal, and consulting costs in connection with exploration. They also include all impairments on exploration wells where no proved reserves could be demonstrated.

e) Research and development

Expenditure related to research activities is recognized as an expense in the period in which it is incurred. Research and development (R&D) expenses, which are presented in the income statement in the line Other operating expenses, include all direct and indirect materials, personnel and external services costs incurred in connection with the focused search for new insights related to the development and significant improvement of products, services and processes and in connection with research activities. Development costs are capitalized if the recognition criteria according to  38 are fulfilled.

f) Exploration and production sharing agreements

Exploration and production sharing agreements (EPSAs) are contracts for oil and gas licenses in which the oil or gas production is shared between one or more oil companies and the host country/national oil company in defined proportions. Exploration expenditures are carried by the oil companies as a rule and recovered from the state or the national oil company through so-called “cost oil” in a successful case only. Under certain contracts the host country’s/national oil company’s profit share represents imposed income taxes and is treated as such for the purpose of the income statement presentation.

g) Intangible assets and property, plant and equipment

Intangible assets and property, plant and equipment are recognized at costs of acquisition or construction (including costs of major inspection and general overhauls). The present value of the expected cost for the decommissioning of an asset after its use is included in the cost of the respective asset when a decommissioning provision is recognized (see Note 3.2s). Costs for replacing components are capitalized and carrying values of the replaced parts are derecognized. Costs relating to minor maintenance and repairs are treated as expenses in the year in which they are incurred.

Intangible assets and depreciable property, plant, and equipment (except for oil and gas assets, see Note 3.2h) are amortized or depreciated on a straight-line basis over the useful economic life.

Useful life



Intangible assets




3–7 or license duration

Concessions, licenses, contract-related intangible assets, etc.

3–20 or contract duration

Business-specific property, plant and equipment



Chemical production facilities






Storage tanks



Refinery facilities



Filling stations



Oil and gas wells

Unit-of-production method


Gas power plant


Other property, plant and equipment


Production and office buildings


Other technical plant and equipment


Fixtures and fittings


h) Oil and gas assets

E&P activities are recorded using the successful efforts method. The acquisition costs of geological and geophysical studies before the discovery of proved reserves, are recognized in the period in which they are incurred. The costs of wells are capitalized and reported as intangible assets until the existence or absence of potentially commercially viable oil or gas reserves is determined. Wells that are not commercially viable are expensed. The costs of exploration wells whose commercial viability has not yet been determined continue to be capitalized as long as the following conditions are fulfilled:

  • Sufficient oil and gas reserves have been discovered that would justify completion as a production well.
  • Sufficient progress is being made in assessing the economic and technical feasibility to justify beginning field development in the near future.
  • The period for which the entity has the right to explore in the specific area has not expired.

Significant estimates and judgments: Recoverability of unproved oil and gas assets

There may be cases when costs related to unproved oil and gas properties remain capitalized over longer periods while various appraisal and seismic activities continue in order to assess the size of the reservoir and its commerciality. Further decisions on the optimum timing of such developments are made from a resource and portfolio point of view. As soon as there is no further intention to develop a discovery, the assets are immediately impaired.

Exploratory wells in progress at year-end that are determined to be unsuccessful subsequent to the statement of financial position date are treated as non-adjusting events, meaning that the costs incurred for such exploratory wells remain capitalized in the financial statements of the reporting period under review and will be expensed in the subsequent period.

License acquisition costs and capitalized exploration and appraisal activities are not amortized as long as they are related to unproved reserves, but tested for impairment when there is an indication of potential impairment. Once the reserves are proved and commercial viability is established, the related assets are reclassified into tangible assets. Development expenditure on the construction, installation, or completion of infrastructure facilities such as platforms and pipelines and drilling development wells is capitalized within tangible assets.

Once production starts, depreciation commences. Capitalized exploration and development costs are generally depreciated based on proved developed reserves by applying the unit-of-production method; only capitalized exploration rights and acquired reserves are amortized on the basis of total proved reserves, unless a different reserves basis is more adequate. Depreciation of economically successful exploration and production assets is reported as depreciation, amortization, impairment charges and write-ups.

Significant estimate: Oil and gas reserves

The oil and gas reserves are estimated by the Group’s petroleum experts in accordance with industry standards and reassessed at least once per year. In addition, external reviews are performed regularly. In 2023, the reserves of all material oil and gas assets (as of December 31, 2022), except for those in Tunisia, the Kurdistan region of Iraq (KRI), Malaysia and Yemen were externally reviewed by DeGolyer and MacNaughton (D&M). The reserves of the oil and gas assets in Tunisia, KRI, and Malaysia were externally reviewed the year before.

The results of the external reviews did not show significant deviations from the internal estimates, apart from a few exceptional cases. In the case of significant deviations, OMV performs further analysis, involving additional independent experts where necessary.

Oil and gas reserve estimates have a significant impact on the assessment of the recoverability of the carrying amounts of the Group’s oil and gas assets. Downward revisions of these estimates could lead to impairment of the asset’s carrying amount. In addition, changes to the estimates of oil and gas reserves impact prospectively the amount of amortization and depreciation.

i) Associated companies and joint arrangements

Associated companies are those entities in which the Group has significant influence, but no control or joint control over the financial and operating policies. Joint arrangements, which are arrangements of which the Group has joint control together with one or more parties, are classified into joint ventures or joint operations. Joint ventures are joint arrangements in which the parties that share control have rights to the net assets of the arrangement. Joint operations are joint arrangements in which the parties that share joint control have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement.

Investments in associated companies and joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method, under which the investment is initially recognized at cost and subsequently adjusted for the Group’s share of the profit or loss less dividends received and the Group’s share of other comprehensive income and other movements in equity.

Significant joint exploration and production activities in the business in the Energy segment are conducted through joint operations that are not structured through a separate vehicle. For these joint operations, OMV recognizes in the consolidated financial statements its share of the assets held and liabilities and expenses incurred jointly with the other partners, as well as the Group’s income from the sale of its share of the output and any liabilities and expenses that the Group has incurred in relation to the joint operation. Acquisitions of interests in a joint operation, in which the activity of the joint operation constitutes a business, are accounted for according to the relevant IFRS 3 principles for business combination accounting (see Note 3.2a).

In addition, there are contractual arrangements similar to joint operations that are not jointly controlled and therefore do not meet the definition of a joint operation according to IFRS 11. This is the case when the main decisions can be taken by more than one combination of affirmative votes of the involved parties or where one other party has control. OMV assesses whether such arrangements are within or outside the scope of IFRS 11 on the basis of the relevant legal arrangements such as concession, license or joint operating agreements which define how and by whom the relevant decisions for these activities are taken. The accounting treatment for these arrangements is basically the same as for joint operations. As acquisitions of interests in such arrangements are not within the scope of IFRS 3, OMV’s accounting policy is to treat such transactions as asset acquisitions.

j) Impairment of assets

Intangible assets, property, plant and equipment (including oil and gas assets) and investments in associated companies and joint ventures are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that an asset may be impaired. Impairment tests are performed on the level of the asset or the smallest group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets, called cash-generating units (CGUs).

If assets are determined to be impaired, the carrying amounts are written down to their recoverable amount, which is the higher of fair value less costs of disposal or value in use.

In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a post-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset or . The cash flows are generally derived from the recent budgets and planning calculations, which are prepared separately for each of the Group’s CGUs to which the individual assets are allocated.

The fair value less costs of disposal is determined on the basis of recent market transactions, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

If the reasons for impairment no longer apply in a subsequent period, a reversal is recognized in profit or loss. The increased carrying amount related to the reversal of an impairment loss shall not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of amortization and depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognized in prior years.

Significant estimates and judgments: Recoverability of assets

Evaluating whether assets or CGUs are impaired or whether past impairments should be reversed, requires the use of various estimates and assumptions such as price and margin developments, production volumes and discount rates.

Changes in the economic situation, expectations of climate-related risks or other facts and circumstances might require a revision of these assumptions and could lead to impairments of assets or reversals of impairments within the next financial year. The management performs this analysis for each material CGU. The impairments and reversals recognized in the reporting period are presented in Note 8 – Depreciation, amortization, impairments and write-ups.

The price and margin assumptions used in impairment testing are reviewed annually by management and approved by the Supervisory Board as part of mid-term planning (MTP). They are based on management’s best estimate and consistent with external sources. Whereas prices in the near term are anchored in recent forward prices and market developments, long-term price assumptions are developed using a variety of long-term forecasts by reputable experts and consider long-term views of global supply and demand. OMV’s long-term assumptions take into consideration the impacts of climate change and the energy transition to lower-carbon energy sources (see Note 2).

The key valuation assumptions for the recoverable amounts of E&P assets are prices and margins, production volumes, exchange, and discount rates. The production profiles were estimated based on reserves estimates (see Note 3.2h) and past experience and represent management’s best estimate of future production. The cash flow projections for the first five years are based on the mid-term plan and thereafter on “life of field” planning and therefore cover the whole life span of the field.

In the F&F and business segments, the main assumptions for the calculation of the recoverable amounts are the relevant margins and volumes plus discount, inflation, and growth rates. The value in use calculation is based on the cash flows of the five-year mid-term plan and a terminal value.

The price sets used for the value in use calculations are included in Note 2 – Effects of climate change and the energy transition.

k) Assets held for sale

Non-current assets and disposal groups are classified as held for sale if their carrying amounts are to be realized by sale rather than through continued use. This is the case when the sale is highly probable, and the asset or disposal group is available for immediate sale in its present condition. At OMV, these conditions are normally considered not to be fulfilled before binding offers from interested parties are received.

Non-current assets and disposal groups classified as held for sale are measured at the lower of carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell. Property, plant and equipment and intangible assets once classified as held for sale are no longer amortized or depreciated and investments in associates and joint ventures are no longer accounted for at equity.

l) Leases

As a lessee, OMV recognizes lease liabilities and right-of-use assets for lease contracts according to IFRS 16. It applies the recognition exemption for short-term leases and leases in which the underlying asset is of low value and therefore does not recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities for such leases. Leases to explore for and use oil and natural gas, which comprise mainly land leases used for such activities, are not in the scope of IFRS 16. The rent for these contracts is recognized as expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Non-lease components are separated from the lease components for the measurement of right-of-use assets and lease liabilities. Lease liabilities are recognized at the present value of fixed lease payments and lease payments that depend on an index or rate over the determined lease term with the applicable discount rate. Right-of-use assets are recognized at the value of the lease liability plus prepayments and initial direct costs and presented within property, plant and equipment.

Significant estimates and judgments: Leases

OMV has a significant number of contracts in which it leases filling stations. Many of those contracts include prolongation and termination options. Prolongation options or periods after termination options are included in the lease term if it is reasonably certain that the lease will be prolonged or not terminated. When determining the lease term, the Group takes into account all relevant facts and circumstances that create an economic incentive for shortening or prolonging the lease term using the available options. When assessing the lease term of leases in filling stations for periods covered by prolongation or termination options, the assumption was applied that the lease term will not exceed 20 years.

Optional periods not taken into account in the measurement of the leases, exist mainly for E&P equipment in Romania, office buildings, a plot of land in Belgium and gas storage caverns in Germany. The prolongation option for the office buildings and the gas storage caverns can only be exercised in the distant future.

m) Non-derivative financial assets

At initial recognition, OMV classifies its financial assets as subsequently measured at amortized cost, fair value through other comprehensive income () or fair value through profit or loss (). The classification depends on both the Group’s business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial assets. All regular way trades are recognized and derecognized on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Group commits to purchasing or selling the asset.

Debt instruments are mainly measured at amortized cost and to a small extent at fair value.

OMV recognizes allowances for expected credit losses (ECLs) for all financial assets measured at amortized costs. The calculation is based on the external or internal credit ratings of the counterparty and associated probabilities of default. Available forward-looking information is taken into account, if it has a material impact on the amount of the valuation allowance recognized.

ECLs are recognized in two stages. Where there has not been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition, credit losses are measured at twelve-month ECLs. The twelve-month ECL is the credit loss that could result from default events that are possible within the next twelve months. The Group considers a financial asset to have low credit risk when its credit risk rating is equivalent to the definition of “investment grade”.

Where there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition, a loss allowance is required for the lifetime ECL, i.e., the expected credit losses resulting from possible default events over the expected life of a financial asset. For this assessment, OMV considers all reasonable and supportable information that is available without undue cost or effort. Furthermore, OMV assumes that the credit risk on a financial asset has significantly increased if it is more than 30 days past due. If credit quality improves for a lifetime asset, OMV reverts to recognizing allowances on a twelve-month ECL basis. A financial asset is considered to be in default when the financial asset is 90 days past due, unless there is reasonable and supportable information demonstrating that a more lagging default criterion is appropriate. A financial asset is written off when there is no reasonable expectation that the contractual cash flows will be recovered.

For trade receivables and contract assets from contracts with customers, a simplified approach is adopted, where the impairment losses are recognized at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses. If there are credit insurances or securities held against the balances outstanding, the ECL calculation is based on the probability of default of the insurer/securer for the insured/secured element of the outstanding balance and for the remaining amount on the probability of default of the counterparty.

Non-derivative financial assets classified as at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL) include trade receivables from sales contracts with provisional pricing and investment funds because the contractual cash flows do not solely represent payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding. Furthermore, this measurement category includes portfolios of trade receivables held with an intention to sell them. These assets are measured at fair value, with any gains or losses arising on remeasurement recognized in profit or loss.

Equity instruments are either measured at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL) or at fair value through OCI (FVOCI). OMV decided irrevocably to classify as investments at FVOCI the majority of its non-listed equity investments, which are held for strategic purposes and not trading.

OMV derecognizes a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or when it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another party.

Significant estimates and judgments: Fair value and recoverability of financial assets

The management periodically assesses the receivable related to expenditure recoverable from the Romanian state regarding obligations for decommissioning and restoration costs in OMV Petrom SA. The assessment process takes into consideration aspects such as the history of amounts claimed, documentation process-related requirements, potential litigation, and arbitration proceedings.

OMV has a contractual position toward Gazprom from the redetermination of the reserves of the Yuzhno Russkoye gas field, which was taken over as part of the acquisition of the participation in this field in 2017. According to this agreement, the volume of gas reserves in the Yuzhno Russkoye field is contractually defined and if the reserves are higher or lower than what was assumed in the agreement, either OMV could be obligated to compensate Gazprom (but would have profited in the future from higher sales volumes) or Gazprom could be obligated to compensate OMV. The payment for the reserve redetermination is linked to the actual amount of the gas reserves.

A fair value calculation based on three different scenarios, one of them based on an internal estimate by OMV, led to a positive value. In the current difficult political and legal environment in Russia, however, OMV does not expect this contractual position to be recoverable and measures this receivable with a value of zero (2022: zero).

Details on the valuation of the investments measured at fair value through profit or loss in the Yuzhno Russkoye gas field can be found in Note 20 – Financial assets.

n) Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting

Derivative financial instruments are used to hedge risks resulting from changes in currency exchange rates, commodity prices, and interest rates and for trading purposes. Derivative instruments are recognized at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses are recognized as income or expenses, except where hedge accounting according to IFRS 9 is applied.

Those derivatives qualifying and designated as hedges are either

  • a fair value hedge when hedging exposure to changes in the fair value of a recognized asset or liability,
  • a cash flow hedge when hedging exposure to variability in cash flows that is attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognized asset or liability or a highly probable forecast transaction, or
  • a net investment hedge when hedging the foreign exchange risk in a net investment in a foreign operation.

For cash flow hedges, the effective part of the changes in fair value is recognized in other comprehensive income, while the ineffective part is recognized immediately in the income statement. Where the hedging of cash flows results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or liability, the carrying value of that item will be adjusted for the accumulated gains or losses recognized directly in .

Hedges of net investments in foreign operations are accounted for similarly to cash flow hedges. Any gain or loss on the hedging instrument relating to the effective portion of the hedge is recognized in OCI and accumulated in the reserve for currency translation differences. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognized immediately in profit or loss. Gains and losses accumulated in equity are reclassified to profit or loss when the foreign operation is disposed of or sold.

Contracts to buy or sell non-financial items that can be settled net in cash or another financial instrument are accounted for as financial instruments and measured at fair value. Associated gains or losses are recognized in profit or loss. However, contracts that are entered into and continue to be held for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of non-financial items in accordance with the Group’s expected purchase, sale, or usage requirements are not accounted for as derivative financial instruments, but as executory contracts.

OMV has contracted several long-term power purchase agreements, which were entered into and continue to be held for own use. They are therefore accounted for as executory contracts.

o) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction, or production of qualified assets are capitalized until these assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale. All other costs of borrowing are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.

p) Government grants

Government grants are recognized as income or deducted from the carrying amount of the related assets, where it is reasonable to expect that the granting conditions will be met and that the grants will be received.

q) Inventories

Inventories are recognized at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Costs incurred are generally determined based on the individual costs for goods that are not interchangeable, the average price method for oil and gas inventories, or the FIFO method for chemical products. Costs of production comprise directly attributable material and labor costs as well as fixed and variable indirect material and production overhead costs. In refineries, a carrying capacity approach is applied according to which the production costs are allocated to product groups on the basis of their relative market values at the end of the period.

r) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents include cash balances, bank accounts and highly liquid short-term investments with low realization risk, i.e., negligible short-term exchange and interest risks. The maximum maturity at the time of acquisition for such investments is three months.

s) Provisions

A provision is recorded for present obligations toward third parties when it is probable that an obligation will occur, and the settlement amount can be estimated reliably. Provisions for individual obligations are based on the best estimate of the amount necessary to settle the obligation, discounted to the present value in the case of long-term obligations.

Decommissioning and environmental obligations: The Group’s core activities regularly lead to obligations related to dismantling and removal, asset retirement and soil remediation activities. These decommissioning and restoration obligations are principally of material importance in the Energy segment (oil and gas wells, surface facilities) and in connection with filling stations on third-party property. At the time the obligation arises, it is provided for in full by recognizing the present value of future decommissioning and restoration expenses as a liability. An equivalent amount is capitalized as part of the carrying amount of long-lived assets. Any such obligation is calculated on the basis of best estimates. The unwinding of discounting leads to interest expense and accordingly to increased obligations at each statement of financial position date until decommissioning or restoration. For other environmental risks and measures, provisions are recognized if such obligations are probable, and the amount of the obligation can be estimated reliably.

Significant estimates and judgments: Decommissioning provisions

The most significant decommissioning obligations of the Group are related to the plugging of wells, the abandonment of facilities, and the removal and disposal of offshore installations. The majority of these activities are planned to occur many years in the future, while decommissioning technologies, costs, regulations and public expectations are constantly changing. Estimates of future restoration costs are based on reports prepared by Group experts or by partner companies and on past experience. Any significant downward changes in the expected future costs or postponement in the future affect both the provision and the related asset, to the extent that there is sufficient carrying amount. Otherwise, the provision is reversed to income. Significant upward revisions trigger the assessment of the recoverability of the underlying asset.

Provisions for decommissioning and restoration costs require estimates of discount and inflation rates, which have material effects on the amounts of the provision. The assumptions used are disclosed in Note 25 – Provisions.

Pensions and similar obligations: OMV has both defined contribution and defined benefit pension plans. In the case of defined contribution plans, OMV has no obligations beyond payment of the agreed premiums, and therefore no provision is recognized. The reported expense corresponds to the contributions payable for the period.

In contrast, participants in defined benefit plans are entitled to pensions at certain levels and are generally based on years of service and the employee’s average compensation. These defined benefit plans expose the Group to actuarial risks, such as longevity risk, interest rate risk, inflation risk (as a result of the indexation of the pension), and market risk. Defined benefit pension obligations are accounted for by recognizing provisions for pensions.

Employees of Austrian Group companies whose service began before December 31, 2002, are entitled to severance payments upon termination of employment or upon reaching the normal retirement age. The entitlements depend on years of service and final compensation levels. Entitlement to severance payments for employees whose service began after December 31, 2002, are covered by defined contribution plans. Similar obligations to entitlement to severance payments also exist in other countries, where the Group provides employment.

Employees in Austria and Germany are entitled to jubilee payments after completion of a given number of years of service. These plans are non-contributory and unfunded.

Provisions for pensions, severance payments and jubilee payments are calculated using the projected unit credit method, which divides the costs of the estimated benefit entitlements over the whole period of employment and thus takes future increases in remuneration into account. Actuarial gains and losses for defined benefit pension and severance payment obligations are recognized in full in the period in which they occur in other comprehensive income. Such actuarial gains and losses are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods. Actuarial gains and losses on obligations for jubilee payments are recognized in profit or loss. Net interest expenses are calculated on the basis of the net defined benefit obligation and disclosed as part of the financial result. The difference between the return on plan assets and interest income on plan assets included in the net interest expenses is recognized in other comprehensive income.

Provisions for voluntary and mandatory separations under restructuring programs are recognized if a detailed plan has been approved by management and communicated to those affected prior to the statement of financial position date and an irrevocable commitment is thereby established. Expenses related to such restructuring programs are included in the line Other operating expenses in the Consolidated Income Statement. Voluntary modifications to employees’ remuneration arrangements are recognized on the basis of the expected number of employees accepting the employing company’s offer. Provisions for obligations related to individual separation agreements that lead to fixed payments over a defined period of time are recognized at the present value of the obligation.

Significant estimates and judgments: Pensions and similar obligations

The projected unit credit method of calculating provisions for pensions, severance and jubilee entitlements requires estimates of discount rates, future increases in salaries and future increases in pensions. For current actuarial assumptions for calculating expected defined benefit entitlements and their sensitivity analysis see Note 25 – Provisions.

The biometrical basis for calculating provisions for pensions, severance and jubilee entitlements of Austrian Group companies is provided by AVÖ 2018 P – Angestellte – Rechnungsgrundlagen für die Pensionsversicherung (Biometric Tables for Pension Insurance), using the variant for salaried employees. In other countries, similar actuarial parameters are used. Employee turnover was computed based on age or years of service, respectively. The expected retirement age used for calculations is based on the relevant country’s legislation.

Provisions for onerous contracts are recognized for contracts in which the unavoidable costs of meeting a contractual obligation exceed the economic benefits expected to be received under the contract. These provisions are measured at the lower amount of the cost of fulfilling the contract and any potential penalties or compensation arising in the event of non-performance.

Significant estimates and judgments: Provisions for onerous contracts

OMV concluded several long-term, non-cancellable contracts in the past that became onerous due to the negative development of market conditions. This led to the recognition of onerous contract provisions in the Group’s financial statements for the unavoidable costs of meeting the contract obligations.

The estimates used for calculating the positive contributions that partly cover the fixed costs were based on external sources and management expectations. For more details see Note 25 – Provisions.

t) Emission allowances

Emission allowances are measured at cost and presented within other short-term assets. Certificates received free of charge from government authorities (EU Emissions Trading Scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowances) are recognized with an acquisition cost of zero.

The emissions caused create an obligation to surrender emission rights. A provision is created for this obligation, which is valued at the acquisition costs of the emissions certificates held, forward prices of open forward purchases and, for any remaining shortfall, at the market value.

OMV voluntarily changed its accounting policy for emissions certificates in the reporting period (see section 3 of this note).

u) Non-derivative financial liabilities

Liabilities are carried at amortized cost, with the exception of derivative financial instruments, which are recognized at fair value. Long-term liabilities are discounted using the effective interest rate method.

Financial guarantee contracts are recognized as a financial liability at the time the guarantee is issued. The liability is initially measured at fair value and subsequently measured at the higher of the amount of the loss allowance determined according to the expected credit losses model and the amount initially recognized less the cumulative income recognized according to IFRS 15.

v) Taxes on income and deferred taxes

In addition to corporate income taxes and trade earnings taxes, typical E&P taxes from oil and gas production like the country/national oil company’s profit share for certain EPSAs (see Note 3.2f) are disclosed as income taxes. Deferred taxes are recognized for temporary differences.

Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses, unused tax credits and deductible temporary differences can be utilized.

Significant estimates and judgments: Recoverability of deferred tax assets

The recognition of deferred tax assets requires an assessment of when those assets are likely to reverse, and an evaluation as to whether or not there will be sufficient taxable profits available to offset the assets when they reverse. This assessment of recoverability requires assumptions regarding future taxable profits and is therefore uncertain. At OMV, this assessment is based on detailed tax plannings that covers the life span of fields in E&P entities and a five-year period in the other entities.

Changes in the assumptions regarding future taxable profits can lead to an increase or decrease in the amount of deferred tax assets recognized, which has an impact on the in the period in which the change occurs.

w) Long Term Incentive (LTI) Plans and Equity Deferral

The fair value of share-based compensation expense arising from the Long-Term Incentive (LTI) Plan – OMV’s main equity settled plan – is estimated using a model based on the expected target achievements and the expected share prices. For cash-settled awards, a provision based on the fair value of the amount payable is built up over the vesting period, so that by the end of the vesting period the fair value of the bonus shares to be granted is fully provided for. The provision is remeasured at the end of each reporting period up to the date of settlement, with any changes in fair value recognized in profit or loss. For share-settled awards, the grant date fair value is recognized as an expense (including income tax), with a corresponding increase in equity, over the vesting period of the awards. The amount recognized as an expense is adjusted to subsequent changes in parameters other than market parameters.

In addition, the Equity Deferral part of the annual bonus is settled in shares. Accordingly, the related expense is recognized against equity. For share-based awards, the award is settled net of tax to the participants.

x) Fair value measurement

The fair value is the amount for which an asset or liability could be transferred at the measurement date, based on the assumption that such transfers take place between participants in principal markets and, where applicable, taking highest and best use into account.

Fair values are determined according to the following hierarchy:

  • Level 1: Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. For the OMV Group, this category will, in most cases, only be relevant for securities, bonds, investment funds and futures contracts.
  • Level 2: Valuation technique using directly or indirectly observable inputs. In order to determine the fair value for financial instruments within Level 2, usually forward prices of crude oil or natural gas, interest rates and foreign exchange rates are used as inputs to the valuation model. In addition counterparty credit risk and volatility indicators, if applicable, are taken into account.
  • Level 3: Valuation techniques such as discounted cash flow models using significant unobservable inputs (e.g., long-term price assumptions and reserves estimates).

y) Foreign currency translation

Monetary foreign currency balances are measured at closing rates, and exchange gains and losses accrued at the statement of financial position date are recognized in the income statement.

The financial statements of Group companies with functional currencies that differ from the Group’s presentation currency are translated using the closing rate method. Differences arising from statement of financial position items translated at closing rates are disclosed in other comprehensive income. Income statement items are translated at average rates for the period. The use of average rates for the income statement creates additional differences compared to the application of the closing rates in the statement of financial position, and these are directly adjusted in other comprehensive income.

The main rates applied in translating currencies to EUR were as follows:

Foreign currency translation










Statement of financial position date


Statement of financial position date


Bulgarian lev (BGN)





Czech crown (CZK)





Hungarian forint (HUF)





New Zealand dollar (NZD)





Norwegian krone (NOK)





Romanian leu (RON)





Swedish krona (SEK)





US dollar (USD)





3) Changes in accounting policies

The Group adopted the following new standards and amendments starting on January 1, 2023:

  • IFRS 17 Insurance Contracts and Amendments to IFRS 17
  • Amendments to IAS 1 and IFRS Practice Statement 2: Disclosure of Accounting Policies
  • Amendments to IAS 8: Definition of Accounting Estimates
  • Amendments to  12: Deferred Tax related to Assets and Liabilities arising from a Single Transaction

The amendments did not have any material impact on OMV’s Group financial statements.

Amendments to IAS 12: International Tax Reform Pillar Two Model Rules

The Group has applied the mandatory temporary exception to recognizing and disclosing information about deferred tax assets and liabilities arising from Pillar Two income taxes since the amendments were published in May 2023.

The mandatory temporary exception applies retrospectively. The retrospective application does not have any impact on the Group’s consolidated financial statements because no new legislation to implement the top-up tax was enacted or substantively enacted as of December 31, 2022, in any jurisdiction in which the Group operates and no related deferred tax was recognized on that date.

Voluntary changes in accounting policies

OMV voluntarily changed its accounting policy for the presentation of purchased emissions certificates and provisions for CO2 emissions in the balance sheet. Whereas the assets related to purchased emission certificates were netted with the provisions for CO2 emissions in the past, OMV started presenting these items gross in the balance sheet from December 31, 2023. The reason for the change was to improve the transparency of these balance sheet items. As of December 31, 2023, this change led to an increase in other assets and other provisions of EUR 400.

The following table summarizes the impact on the consolidated statement of financial position of the comparative period. A restated consolidated statement of financial position as of January 1, 2022, was not published in the primary financial statements because the change had only a minor impact on the Group’s assets and liabilities.

4) Amendments to IFRSs not yet mandatory

OMV has not applied the following amendments to standards that have been issued but are not yet effective. They are not expected to have any material effects on the Group’s financial statements. EU endorsement is still pending in some cases.

Amendments to IFRSs

IASB effective date

Amendments to IAS 1: Classification of Liabilities as Current and Non-Current

January 1, 2024

Amendments to IFRS 16: Lease Liability in a Sale and Leaseback

January 1, 2024

Amendments to IAS 1: Non-Current Liabilities with Covenants

January 1, 2024

Amendments to IAS 7 and IFRS 7: Supplier Finance Arrangements

January 1, 2024

Amendments to IAS 21: Lack of Exchangeability

January 1, 2025

Net assets
Intangible assets, property, plant and equipment, equity-accounted investments, investments in other companies, loans granted to equity-accounted investments, and total net working capital less provisions for decommissioning and restoration obligations
Liquefied Natural Gas
Fuels & Feedstock business segment
Exploration & Production, part of Energy business segment
International Accounting Standards
Exploration and Production Sharing Agreement
Exploration & Production, part of Energy business segment
Cash generating unit
Chemicals & Materials business segment
Fair value through other comprehensive income
Fair value through the statement of profit or loss
Expected credit losses
Expected credit losses
Other comprehensive income
Net income
Net operating profit or loss after interest and tax
International Accounting Standards